Top 10 Indian Inventions and Discoveries
India''s contribution to global research may seem neglible in the 21st century, but the fact remains that India has played a key role in products, ideas and technologies that are used in everyday life around the world.
The great indian consumer still pays premium to the know-hows of technology that should have come to him at no extra cost. Patents are not something we invented but patents have certainly masked our capabilities. Had Patanjali applied for patent, many people around the world would not have benefited from yoga.
There is enough evidence and acknowledgement that Indians are the first to use zero for arithmetic calculations. Without ''zero'', we cannot imagine about science and technology.
Many might argue that inventing zero in not ''rocket science'' , but there is no rocket science without ''zero''. It is only after the invention of zero, did the scientific innovations of the cave man came to real practical use.
More inks are used in printer catridges these days, but Indians were the first to use them for writing/drawing. Though these inks differed from the modern ink (the early inks were made by burning bones,tar and pitch), documents using the Indian ink are still intact and legible. Many religious sutras were sourced from documents written using the Indian ink.
#3 CRUCIBLE STEEL
Steel is one of the important inventions that helped and shaped the industrial revolution, but Indians were the first to use a type of steel called ''crucible steel''.
It was made by mixing charcoal with molten wrought iron until the carbon was absorbed. Known to have been in use well before the christian era, the invention has support from archealogical evidence.
#4 COTTON GIN
It was cotton which bought the east india company into India. Indians were growing cotton from time immemorial and they had developed many machineries to weed out seeds and extract raw cotton.
One such invention was ''COTTON GIN'' , a variant of which is still in use. However, the modern version was patented by the inventor Eli Whitney.
#5 ROCKET ARTILLERY
Tippu sultan,the king of Sultanate of Mysore, was the first to use Rocket artillery in the war against East India company. It had a iron casing and a metal cylinder and produced enough thrust to propell for longer ranges.
Inspired by its design, the British made use of the technology and developed a more sophisticated version which they used in the war against Napolean. But, the fact remains that rocket technology was first developed in India.
#6 CATARACT SURGERY
The famous Indian physician Sushruta mentions cataract in his work" Compendium of Sushruta or Sushruta Samhita" as early as 29 AD.
Putting a knife inside the eye is a daunting task and imagine the expertise that would have gone to perform a surgery (These days Cataract is called as a procedure rather than a surgery).
Further, according to the text, the surgical method was clearly explained with step-by-step procedures, precautions, post surgical care etc.
#7 RAMAN EFFECT
Perhaps, the most important contribution from India to science in the 20th century, RAMAN EFFECT explains the scattering of light by molecules and further goes down to the level of measuring frequency and wavelength changes that results out of scattering(diffraction).
The wonderful colors we see in the sky, water and land owe their expalantion to Sir C V Raman, who with his simple experiments explained to the world about this phenomenon.No wonder, he deserved a Nobel prize for the discovery.
Known for their beauty, strength, hardness, durability and most notably for the prestige it brings to the owner/possessor, Diamonds, no doubt is the most valuable material on earth in terms of exchange value.
Mention about diamond trade is found in Arthasastra and India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in the 18 th century. Estimates tell us that the diamond trade in India is as old as 5000 years.
#9 Contribution of Ramanujan to Maths
Contribution of srinivasa ramanujan is one of the most important inventions that proud us to be an Indian. He spread the name of our country to all over the world.
#10 Ayurveda and Siddha (Ancient medicines still in use)
Today, Ayurveda and Siddha are considered alternative medicines, but before the invention of allopathy and western medical treatments, India had developed highly reliable medical treatments based on Ayurveda and Siddha systems.
Even in the 21st century, people turn to these practises for treatments not found in main stream methods. With little or no side effects, herbs, fruits and vegetables are used to prepare medicines which cure diseases and ailments naturally.